X-rays are used in many ways to image and analyze objects. A very important property of X-rays is their ability to penetrate matter, a fact that allows X-rays to be used to analyze also the interior of objects. Compared to visible light, the much shorter wavelength of X-rays fundamentally allows imaging and analysis at a much better resolution, even down to the atomic length scale.
Here, we briefly introduce some X-ray techniques, describe their potentials and the requirements on the equipment. The techniques have been divided in three categories, Imaging, Spectroscopy & Fluorescence and Scattering & Diffraction.