and X-ray techniques
Compared to visible light, the much shorter wavelength of X-rays fundamentally allows imaging and analysis at a much better resolution, even down to the atomic length scale.
Read about some X-ray techniques, and learn about their potentials and the requirements on the equipment.
X-ray spectroscopy and fluorescne
Spectroscopic X-ray methods are based on detecting X-ray energy spectra. The spectra can be used to identify elements since every element has its unique absorption edges and fluorescence lines or even electronic structure of matter by analyzing the exact shape of emission or absorption lines.