The high-brightness, microfocus, liquid metal-jet X-ray source enables the capability of doing high resolution fast 4-D computed tomography. By capturing the high-speed, time-lapse tomography over the entire breathing cycle of a mouse during mechanical ventilation, the research group in Australia has studied the relationship between regional tidal volume (VT), regional functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expression of genes linked with ventilator-induced lung injury with a mouse model. The analysis on the images brought quantitative information of the regional variation in VT and FRC, and by combing with the gene expression analysis obtained from qPCR, the complicated link between them and the ventilation strategy was observed. The conclusion that the regional inflammatory responses to mechanical ventilation is primarily driven by tidal stretch was given. The results of the work are very valuable for a better understanding of the lung mechanical response to ventilation and thus the possibility to reduce the possibility of ventilator-induced lung injury.